Arrival in Victoria, 1867: Philip Christopher Warland

Philip Christopher Warland (1840 - 18 Mar 1918) was born in Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK and was the youngest son of Henry Warland (23 Sep 1797 - 25 Jun 1881) and Anne Roberts/Johnstone. Henry Warland was, from 1848, a silk manufacturer in Macclesfield. In 1851, Henry Warland and family moved to London where he set up a business as a silk merchant.

Philip Christopher Warland's brother Edward Warland migrated to Australia in 1853. His brother Henry Warland remained in the UK.

Philip's cousin Henry Warland arrived in Australia around 1855. He was the uncle of his older brother Henry's children, including Albert John Warland, who arrived in Australia in 1884, and Albert's brother William Edward Warland, who arrived in Australia in 1887. Albert and William's brother Henry Thomas Warland remaind in the UK, while William returned in 1893.

1830 - Birth of James Johnston McLeod, Ayr, Scotland

The information about James McLeod and family was provided by Grace Castle's son Malcolm in 2017 and is reproduced here with permission.

James Johnstone McLeod, whose son William McLeod would later marry Philip Christopher Warland's daughter May Warland in 1911, was born in Catrine, Ayrshire, Scotland on 21 March 1830. James was the eldest of seven children who were all born in Catrine, to John McLeod and his wife.

The MacLeod family lived in Catrine, Ayrshire, Scotland, a 'Mill Town' to the east of Ayr. The 1851 UK Census records the McLeod Family as living in Mill Street, Catrine. This was company housing set up by the cotton mill. Mill Street was the main approach to the Mill gate. The family of John McLeod worked at the mill when they were old enough. In 1851 the eldest children had the following occupations:

The house must have been bursting at the seams with parents and nine children between the ages of 21 and new born. Susan at age 14 was at work in the mill which was common enough in the industrial revolution with the only laws on child labour restricting hours worked to 10 per day.

James McLeod married Elizabeth Adam (16 April 1836, Paisley, Scotland - ) in Paisley.

1844 - Eliza Harris arrives in Sydney

Philip Christopher Warland's cousin Eliza Warland (1810 - 22 May 1873, St George, Sydney) was the son of John Warland and Ann Stiles. Eliza married the carpenter Thomas Harris on 26 December 1831 in Hartwell (near Aylesbury), England. They migrated to Australia, arriving in Sydney in 1844 with four children. It is not known if Eliza had any contact with her Melbourne cousins.

1853 - 1855 - Henry Warland arrives in Melbourne

Philip Christopher Warland's cousin, and Eliza Harris' brother, Henry Warland (19 November 1817 - 26 January 1878), the son of John Warland and Ann Stiles, married Sarah Watts (1824 - 31 July 1893, Melbourne, Australia), the daughter of Thomas Watts and Sarah Spencer, in the third quarter of 1847 in Northampton, Northamptonshire, England. They had one daughter in the UK, Alice Maude Warland (1851, St Lukes, London - 10 July 1926 (VIC BDM Ref 11886)).

Perhaps inspired by his sister's emigration to Australia, Henry and Sarah Warland left England sometime between 1853 and 1855. It is assumed that Henry Warland and his sister Eliza Harris had some contact with each other in Australia.

It is believed that Henry and Sarah Warland initially lived in St Kilda, a suburb of Melbourne, as the death records for their children indicate that they died in that area. Including Alice, born in England, they had the following children:

Very little is known about Henry and Sarah Warland and their life after they arrived in Australia, but it is clear that Philip Christopher Warland had contact with these relatives - see below.

1854/55 - James and Elizabeth McLeod and family arrive in Victoria

James and Elizabeth McLeod travelled to Melbourne on Bride of the Seas. James' sister Margaret McLeod also travelled with them. They arrived in Melbourne some months later at the end of 1854/early 1855 and after a brief respite in the tent camp at South Melbourne they made their way to 'the Diggings' at Happy Valley, 20 kms south of Ballarat, where James set up shop as a storekeeper in Beaufort near the Eureka Goldfields (and at the time of the Eureka Stockade).

James and Elizabeth McLeod had eight children in Victoria:

1867 - Philip Christopher (PC) Warland arrives in Australia

Philip Christopher Warland married Miriam Stockwell in Lambeth, London in the first quarter of 1867, after which they departed for Australia. The voyage to Australia took six months in apparently appalling conditions. Philip and Miriam's granddaughter Grace Castle, writing in 1990, stated that she had a little needle book embroidered by Miriam on her way out to Australia for the first time, with the name of the ship 'Chimboraro' embroidered on it. It is understood that Philip Christopher Warland established himself as a minor storekeeper on the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria some time soon after arrival.

Philip Christopher and Miriam Warland had three children:

1869 - Birth of Eleanor Warland

Alice Maude Warland gave birth to an Eleanor ('Nellie') Warland in 1869 in Melbourne (VIC BDM Ref 19015). Her father is not (yet) known but at her marriage on 5 October 1894 it was noted that she was 'the youngest daughter of the late Henry Warland' suggesting that Henry and Sarah Warland adopted Alice's daughter as one of their children - their youngest was only four at the time so she would have fitted in, and perhaps they had no choice.

1870 - Alice Warland a dressmaker

Alice Maud Warland, the second cousin of Philip Christopher Warland's children, was noted as a registered dressmaker in Carlton possibly at the address 57 Rathdowne Street, Carlton. In the same year, Alice's sister Caroline Emily Atkinson was recorded as a surgical bandage maker.

1871 - Death of Elizabeth Warland, Philip Christopher Warland's sister in law

Elizabeth Warland, the wife of Henry Warland, Philip Christopher Warland's brother, died in Bexley, Kent on 22 April 1871. At the time, Henry's three sons were aged 6 to 18 months. Henry then moved to London.

1873 - Eliza Harris (nee Warland) dies in Sydney

Philip Christopher Warland's cousin Eliza Harris died in Sydney in 1873. Her husband is believed to have died in 1878 at the house of his son-in-law in George Street Redfern.

1876 - Henry Warland dies

Philip Christopher Warland's brother Henry Warland died in London on 16 March 1876, leaving his sons, now aged 12 to 7, orphans. The youngest, his nephew Albert John Warland, aged 7, was taken in by the Powell family in Bourne Lane, Bexley.

1878 - Deaths of Henry Warland and Annie Eliza Warland

Philip Christopher Warland's cousin, Henry Warland, died at the family home in 57 Rathdowne Street, Carlton (an inner suburb of Melbourne) on 26 January 1878. On 5 April 1878, Henry and Sarah Warland's daughter Annie Eliza 'the second daughter of the late Henry Warland', died of thypoid fever, aged 22 years. (Source: Illustrated Australian News 15 April 1878)

After Henry and Annie's deaths, the remaining members of the family were Sarah Warland, Alice Maude Warland, Augustus Henry Warland, Caroline Annette Warland, and probably Emily Rosena Warland. Sarah Warland (and presumably the children) was recorded at 2 Lydia Houses, Drummond Street, Carlton from 1879 until 1883.

Emily Warland, as 'Mrs E Atkinson', was noted as a surgical corset maker in Melbourne in the Bendigo Advertiser of 1 July 1879. This doesn't seem correct, as Emily would have been only 14 at the time. The connection between Emily and the name Atkinson is not yet resolved. See the page on Henry Warland for more information.

1879 - Death of James Johnstone McLeod

Note: Some of the information on this page has been provided by the descendents of May Warland - in particular her daughter Grace Warland McLeod - and is reproduced here with their permission.

James Johnstone McLeod died on 18 October 1879 at the age of 48. The official cause of death is listed as paralysis though an anecdotal legend persists in the family that he came to the aid of a Chinese miner who was bitten by a snake. James cut the bite open and proceeded to suck the poison from the wound. Poison entered his system and he thus died. James was nursed by his mother for some time before expiring so snake poison seems an unlikely cause. James' obituary, carried in the Riponshire Advocate on 25 October 1879 provides some background to his life in Australia:

Mr James M’Leod, storekeeper, etc., died at half past 1 o’clock a.m. on Saturday last. His remains were conveyed in a hearse from his late residence to the Beaufort cemetery on Sunday afternoon followed by forty carriages, a number of horsemen and pedestrians. When the funeral reached Beaufort the procession was joined by a large number of inhabitants. The funeral was the largest that passed through Beaufort for some years, which showed the respect deceased has held in by the people of the town and district. The late Mr. M’Leod was a member of the North Riding School Board of Advice since the formation on that body. He was also local postmaster since July 1878. Another old identity has passed away in, I may say, the prime of life, at the age of 48 years, as he did not attain to 'the days of the years of his father’s'. The deceased’s father died at the age of 72 years and grandfather at 98 years. His mother aged 74 years is hale and hearty, and attended her son through his illness. He passed quietly away to that bourne which no traveller can return, surrounded by his bereaved wife and children, mother and sisters, relations and friends. The neighbours all, both far and near, showed their sympathy while he was sick, and paid their last tribute of respect by following his remains to their last resting place.

Sometime after James died, Elizabeth married William McLennan.

1880 - Philip's store vandalised

The South Bourke and Mornington Journal of 26 May 1880 ran the following brief note under 'Local Intelligence':

The usually quiet town of Mornington was late on the evening of Sat. 15 inst. or early of Sun morning following, the scene of a malicious act of larrikinism, viz; the daubing over with either black paint or tar the ornamental writing on the verandah post at the premises of Mr Warland, storekeeper, in the Main St. Mr Warland has excited the ill feeling of a no of persons in consequence of opening his store on Wednesday afternoons - the day set apart by the Half Holiday Ass., of which he was one of the prominent members, holding the position of Hon. Sec., but this is no justification for the act of vandalism perpetrated, which by every right thinking resident is to be regretted, and if the Mornington hero of the tar brush should be discovered he will have reason to be very sorry for his malicious act.

The same Journal noted that Philip Warland was in Mornington Court on 3 June 1880 to claim £1-4-9 goods against a W Male.

1882 - Philip's store destroyed by fire

The South Bourke and Mornington Journal of 4 October 1882 noted that Philip's store was destroyed by a fire on 24 September:

The largest fire that has ever taken place at the Point occured on the morning of Sunday the 24th inst. when the inhabitants were aroused by the ringing of the fire alarm bell, about one o'clock am., when the drapery and grocery stores of Mr Warland in the Main St., was discovered to be on fire. A large number of the neighbourhood soon congregated and assisted in saving a few articles of furniture and a little of the stock, but the fire burnt and extended so rapidly that it was impossible to save much. The consequence being that all the extensive stock of drapery, fancy goods and also the grocery etc were consumed, the building, verandah, and the contents blazed fiercely for two hours, nothing being left standing but the bare walls and chimneys. Amongst those that were present and who rendered valuable assistance were Messrs H. Lawrence, Boman, Mylie, Stobie, Jones, Grover, Norrell, Jenkins, Adams and others.

The origin of the fire is at present unknown. Mr. Warland and his family retired to rest between 11 and 12 o'clock on the Saturday evening, leaving everything apparently safe, and he was awoke about one o’clock by hearing a noise proceeding from the shop. He immediately rose to ascertain what it was, and on going into his sitting room, between which and the shop there is a glass door, he at once saw the drapery store to be in flames, and was all but suffocated by the smoke. He at once gave the alarm, and with some difficulty got his wife, son and servant up and out of the burning building, and with some assistance contrived to get a valuable piano and some other trifling articles from the flames, both store and verandah (the wind blowing from the south west), were rapidly one burning mass, and in less than half an hour the roofs fell in and completed the wreck.

Very fortunately for Mr. Warland he was insured in the London, Liverpool and Globe office for nearly two thousand pounds, and estimated the damage done at some five hundred pounds over and above the amount for which he is insured. Major Freeman and Mr. Bastard, representatives of the office, visited the scene and the ruins of the fire on the 29th inst., and I understand are satisfied of the bona fides of Mr. Warlands claim upon the office. In the meantime Mr.Warland has taken the unoccupied premises formerly Mr. Barratt's store, in the Main street, for a period, and where he will carry on his business until further notice, In conclusion I may add Mr. Warland had the warm sympathy of his neighbours in the loss he has sustained.

Philip's granddaughter, Grace Castle, writing in June 1990, said that the store '... was destroyed by fire when my mother was four years old. She was removed from the premises in a wheelbarrow!'

Philip's daughter in law, (Margaret) Jean Warland, writing in 1990, said that 'it was the fire which eventually spurred the Warlands to move to Melbourne and the factory in Flinders Lane, so it had far reaching consequences'.

1882 - Alice Warland, costumier

In 1882, Alice Warland was recorded in the Sands and Macdougal directory as a 'costumier' at 30 Clarendon Street, South Melbourne, and (as Alice Maud Warland) at 7 Collins Street, Melbourne, in 1884. This address was later also known as 'Premier Chambers'.

1883 - Augustus Henry Warland travels to Sydney

Augustus Henry Warland, also known and recorded as Henry Augustus (and at times 'August' and 'Gus'), left for Sydney on the Nemesis on 27 October 1883 (Source: The Argus, 29 October 1883), returning on the same ship on 5 November 1883 from Sydney. (Source: The Age, 6 November 1883). It is not known if he had contact with his cousins, at least one of whom is believed to have been living in Redfern at the time.

1884 - Philip Christopher Warland returns to the UK?

Perhaps related to the fire, Philip Christopher was said to have returned to the UK sometime after 1879 possibly in 1884, possibly to bring the young Albert John Warland to Australia. His late granddaughter Gladys Warland, suggested in the late 1980s that Philip Christopher and his wife would not have had much time to travel back to the UK. Gladys suggested that, if they did return, it may have been in the early 1880s, when their son was able to run the family store in South Melbourne, although this seems unlikely as Philip was only 17 in 1884. During this time, the two daughters, Kate and May, possibly went to boarding school. See also below.

1884 - Albert John Warland arrives in Australia

Albert John Warland, recorded as being 20 but actually only 15, arrived in Australia on board the Iberia in September 1884 with a Mr and Mrs Warland, both aged 30. It was always assumed that the 'Mr and Mrs Warland' was Philip Christopher and Miriam Warland, although PC Warland was 44 in 1884.

The clue to this, as no other Mr and Mrs Warland aged 30 in Australia fit the bill, might be the presence of Philip Christopher Warland's cousin (the late Henry Warland)'s wife Mrs Sarah Warland at Philip Christopher Warland's address at 68 Ferrars Place, South Melbourne, in 1884. It seems quite possible that Philip and Miriam Warland decided to return to England and leave their children in the care of his late cousin's wife and possibly some of her children.

On his arrival in Australia, is very likely that Albert Warland was at least initially incorporated into Philip's family. Philip Christopher Warland's granddaughter, Gladys Warland, writing in 1986, said that it was believed that 'Uncle Bert' suffered from asthma and they thought that the drier Australian climate would help that. This, and the fact that Albert and his brothers were orphans, may partially explain why he was brought to Australia.

1886 - Augustus Henry Warland in the Melbourne social pages

Augustus Henry Warland appeared in the social pages of the Melbourne Punch on 1 April 1886 as a groomsman along with a 'Miss Warland' as a bridesmaid wearing '... a skirt of cream French poplin, trimmed with cream lace and gold ribbons, a bodice of old gold broche satin, trimmed with cream lace and pearls, a wreath of gold, with white rosebuds'. Was this his 21 year old sister Emily? On 25 May 1886, Mr A H Warland attended and was voted to the chair of the newly formed Melbourne Shelley Society, affiliated with the same society recently established in London. (Source The Argus, 26 May 1886).

Augustus Henry Warland was a prolific writer of letters to the Melbourne 'The Argus' newspaper, often on city planning and other environmental issues.

1887 - Philip Warland a storekeeper in Clifton Hill, Melbourne

According to Margaret Jean Warland, the wife of his grandson, Philip George Warland, in a record of interview on 21 August 1986, it is believed that Philip Christopher Warland was a shopkeeper in Heidelberg Road, Clifton Hill, Victoria, in 1887. This has yet to be confirmed.

1887 - William Edward Warland arrives in Melbourne

Philip Christopher Warland's nephew and Albert Warland's brother, William Edward Warland (1865 - 1955), arrived in Melbourne, Australia, in April 1887 on board the Aberdeen as an 'unassisted immigrant'.

1888 - Augustus Henry Warland marries

Augustus Henry Warland married Alexandra Georgina Boyd on 12 November 1888 in St Kilda, Melbourne. The marriage was recorded in the Melbourne 'The Argus' as follows: On the 12th inst, at St Stephen's Church, Elsternwick, Melbourne, by the Rev Philip Bailhache, Augustus Henry, only surviving son of the late Henry Warland, to Alexandra Georgina, fifth daughter of Charles Boyd, of Sturt Street, Ballarat'. Augustus and Alexandra Warland were living at 41 Garden Street, South Yarra when their son was born:

Philip and Miriam Warland and children, around 1890

1890 - William Warland in South Australia

For reasons as yet unknown, Philip Christopher Warland's nephew, William Warland, travelled to Adelaide, South Australia by August 1890, where he met Mary Ann Scown. Mary Ann fell pregnant in around August 1890. Whether because of the pregnancy or not, William Edward Warland returned to England, arriving on 9 January 1891 from Sydney according to UK shipping records. He married Fanny Wooler in March 1891.

1893 - Marriage of Albert John Warland

Albert John Warland, Philip Christopher Warland's nephew and the second cousin of Augustus Henry Warland and the Misses Warland, married Mary Terrace Stark on 2 April 1893 in Castlemaine, Victoria.

1893 - Sarah Warland dies

Sarah Warland, the wife of Philip Christopher's cousin Henry Warland, appears to have been living with her daughter Alice Maud Warland at 30 Hopetoun Street, Moonee Ponds, in 1893. Sarah died on 31 July 1893, aged 69, according to her death notice in The Argus of 2 August 1893 (and VIC BDM Ref 9822). Alice Maud Warland continued to be recorded at the same address in 1894 and 1895. Emily Rosena Warland's corsetiere business was recorded in the same year at 159 Collins Street, Melbourne.

1894 - Marriage of Eleanor Warland

Eleanor (Nellie) Warland, stated to be 'the youngest daughter of Henry Warland' but actually Alice Maud Warland's daughter, married the Rev. James Robert Osborne, second son of R. Osborne of Eganstown, at the Bible Christian Church, Ascotvale, on 5 October 1894. They appear to have moved to the then Australian Protectorate of Papua (now Papua New Guinea), perhaps as missionaries. (Sources: The Argus: 20 October 1894). They had one son, Frank Robert Warland Osborne.

1895 - The Misses Warland business established

In 1895, Emily Rosena Warland and Alice Warland established a store in central Melbourne, at the same address previously advertised only as Miss E.R. Warland. The new business was named the 'Misses Warland' and sold women's undergarments. The recorded address of the Misses (or Miss) Warland store over the years was as follows:

1896 - Melbourne factory establised

It is known that there was a close connection between Philip Christopher Warland and his nieces (the 'Misses Warland') and nephew (Augustus Warland). Perhaps in some way connected with that, Philip Christopher Warland established a clothing factory in Melbourne in 1896. This company imported and/or produced women's cotton undergarments and survived until 1925 or 1926 - see below.

Philip Warland's Melbourne factory (blurred original photograph)

1902 - Birth of William Thompson (later Castle)

William (later Bill, or Billy) Albert Thompson was born on 30 December 1901 (or 1902) to William Wilson Thompson (born in Raphoe, County Donegal, Ireland) and Isabella Thompson (nee McFarlane) at Duke Street, Balmain. Bill Thompson would later marry into the Warland family. William had an older brother, also named William, who died in 1892.

1902 - Philip Warland marries Violet Rose

Philip Christopher and Miriam's son Philip Warland (born 1867) first worked as an ink manufacturer, although this may have only been for a short while; his daughter Gladys Warland said, in 1986, that she could not recall hearing of this. However, she noted that she '... heard plenty about his work in the grocery store in South Melbourne, the long hours he worked six days a week and the heavy sacks of flour, potatoes etc that had to be carried up or down stairs'. He later worked in the family business manufacturing and importing ladies underwear and travelled throughout Victoria, Monday to Friday, taking orders for his father's undergarment business. His cousin Albert Warland and - more briefly - his other cousin William Edward Warland, were also working as travelling salesmen. William Warland appears to have gone as far as Adelaide in South Australia.

Philip Warland, then aged 35, married Violet Isabel Rose (died 25 July 1963) on 9 July 1902 at St Matthew's Church in Prahran, Victoria, Australia. His cousin Albert John Warland was a witness at the wedding. Violet Isobel Rose was noted in the marriage notice as being the second daughter of F G Rose of Hawksburn. His daughter Gladys Warland, writing in 1986 said that she 'always understood that they went straight to 'Rosemount', The Grange, East Malvern', a property they may have owned until 1912, although, she added, 'sometimes they lived in Gipps Street, East Melbourne'.

1904 - Philip Christopher Warland's business

An extract from the accounting books for 31 March 1904 shows that the business was doing well. The accounts include a payment to Mrs M Warland of £800, one to his son Philip Warland of £50, and four payments of £25 to each of Philip George Warland, May Warland, Kate Warland, and Albert John Warland.

1904 to 1906 - Death of William Wilson Thompson, Isabella remarries

On 19 July 1904, William Wilson Thompson, the father of young Bill Thompson, died. His wife Isabella was left to raise her son with the support of her parents and siblings.

Isabella Thompson (nee McFarlane) married John Castle, a metal worker from Leichhardt, on 3 November 1906. John was a widower with two children: Muriel Castle (born 1897) and John (Jack) Castle (born 1902). Isabella and John Castle had another child, Edith Castle (born 1906/1907). Bill Thompson became William Albert Castle from 1907.

Left: Philip Christopher Warland, around 1910. Right: Miriam Warland, photograph taken between 1900 and 1910

1906 to 1914 - Philip and Violet Warland have a family

Philip and Violet Warland had two children:

Around the time that Philip George Warland was born, Philip Warland ceased his travels around Victoria taking orders, and worked instead in the Flinders Lane office, keeping the books. Gladys Warland, writing in 1986, suggested that her mother wasn't happy being left alone pregnant. Gladys also noted that her brother was of short stature, the 'result of the bad conditions during his mother's pregnancy', but fortunately he was blesssed with a strong constitution'.

The address 30 Sutherland Road, Armidale (as was as the address 30 Densham Road, Armidale) was noted from 1907 to 1910 as connected with Philip Warland but it is not known if this was Philip and Violet's address or perhaps Philip's father's address. Curiously, a 'Max Warland' appears at 30 Sutherland Road, Armidale, in 1910. It is not known who Max was; Gladys Warland said in 1986 that she had no idea who that was and his identity remains unknown - there is no Max Warland in the family anywhere.

According to Philip Warland's granddaughter Grace Castle, writing in June 1990, 'My mother (May Warland) worked in the office of the factory interviewing commercial travellers, etc. She and her sister Kate travelled to England in 1910 with their parents and it was on the return journey that my mother (May) met my father on the ship. He was William McLeod from Cranbourne Victoria'.

1911 - Philip and Violet Warland travel to the UK

Philip and Violet Warland and their son Philip George, photo taken around 1916 or earlier (their daughter was born in mid 1914)

In 1911, Philip and Violet Warland travelled to the UK on the RMSS Orvieto, where they attended the celebrations for the coronation of King George V. They were also apparently in contact with an un-named British company which was importing or exporting items from or to Australia. It is not known if they took their son Philip George Warland with them.

1911 - Marriage of May Warland

May Warland's marriage to William McLeod, 1911. Photo taken at her father's residence, 'Brixton'

May Warland married William McLeod (25 August 1872, Beaufort, Victoria - 1935) in 1911 in Melbourne (Vic BDM Ref 7420). May and William McLeod were photographed at the house of her father, Brixton, on their wedding day. May's sister Kate was her bridesmaid, Arthur David was the best man.

May and William McLeod had one daughter:

1913 - Herbert Warland arrives in Melbourne

It was noted above that Philip Christopher Warland's nephew, William Edward Warland arrived in Melbourne in 1887 but returned to England by 1891. William Edward Warland's son Herbert Warland migrated to Australia in 1913. It is known that he had contact with his uncle Bert and possibly also met his other Warland relatives.

1914 - Nellie Browning joins the Warland company

Nellie Browning, born on 23 November 1898 in England, arrived in Australia in August 1913 and in 1914 took up a position at Philip Christopher Warland's company in 89 Flinders Lane, Melbourne. In an interview on 7 August 1986 with Ian Warland, Nellie said that: (a) she remembered the Misses Warland shop, (b) noted that Kate Warland came into the business occasionally, (c) remembered Gus Warland, the brother of the corsetieres Alice Maud and Caroline Emily (Warland) in Regent Place, as a cousin who also came into the store, and (d) was 'in awe of Mr Phillip'. In a letter dated 2 October 1986, Nellie stated that her years at Warlands 'were happy and fruitful'.

1915 - William and May McLeod move to Sydney

May and William McLeod moved to Sydney in 1915; May's father's death notice in 1918 (see below) refers to 'May (Mrs McLeod, Sydney)'. Their daughter Grace apparently travelled to Melbourne every year with her mother and visited their relatives there. She noted, in June 1990 that 'I remember cousin Emily of the corset business vaguely, also my mother speaking of cousin Bert (Albert Warland). Also I remember Gus being mentioned - but I don't know who he was'. See below for further information about Grace Warland McLeod.

Philip Christopher Warland, around 1915.

1918 - Death of Philip Christopher Warland

Philip Christopher Warland died on 18 March 1918. The death notice in The Argus of 20 March 1918 read as follows: 'On the 18th March [1918], at his residence 'Brixton', 23 Huntingtower Road, Malvern, Philip Christopher, the dearly belowed husband of Miriam and loved father of Philip, Kate, and May (Mrs McLeod, Sydney), managing director of P Warland Pty Ltd, Flinders Lane, and a colonist of 50 years (Interred privately, Brighton Cemetery)'

The following notice appears soon afterwards:

WARLAND BEQUESTS. The Trustees. Executors and Agency Company Limited and Phillip Warland executors and trustees of the will of Phillip Christopher Warland, late of 89 Flinders Lane, Melbourne manufacturer, are making a second distribution of the corpus of the estate, amounting £438 to each of the following charitable institutions and societies:- Homeopathic Hospital, Austin Hospital for Incurables. Royal Victorian Institute for the blind. Melbourne City Mission. Gordon Institute for Boys Charity Organisation Society, Bishop of Melbourne's Fund. Children's Hospital. Church Missionary Association. Methodist Home Mission Society, British and Foreign Bible Society, London. London Missionary Society, Surrey Chapel, Primitive Methodist Central Mission.

Early 1920's - Philip George Warland working, takes Law Degree

Philip and Violet's daughter, Gladys Warland, described her brother in the late 1980's as a man with a 'nervy and excitable disposition'. He was apparently removed from Scotch College, on the advice of the family doctor who said it was 'too big and too pressurising'. He was instead sent to Mrs Clancy's Boarding School in Geelong which had a 'quieter, scholastic atmosphere' according to Gladys.

According to Gladys Warland, in the early 1920's, Philip George Warland was employed in an office in Melbourne, but apparently was not very happy, and commenced further study at the Teacher's Training College, where he completed an Arts Degree. He then took a Degree in Law and became articled to a solicitor, a Mr Fullerton, in the Temple Court Building, Chancery House. See also below.

1921 - Fire in the Melbourne factory

On Thursday 15 September 1921, the Warland factory in Flinders Lane Melbourne was damaged by fire, effectively putting an end to the business (although it traded for several more years). Newspaper reports of the time noted that the building was '... a four storied brick warehouse, the top floor of which was occupied by the Britannia Tie Co, and the lower floors by Phillip [sic] Warland Proprietary Limited, manufacturers of white work. The fire started in a top flat, which was gutted. The other flats were considerably damaged by fire and water'.

According to Gladys Warland, writing in 1986, 'I remember a great commotion at home one night I think it would have been in the early 1920s. The factory in 'the Lane' was on fire and that was the end of the business in practical terms. PCW was dead, Kate was married (or about to be) and my father was then in his mid 50s. He virtually retired then but worked for the next ten years or so in a part-time capacity as account for an estate agency business which I think was in Queen Street, Melbourne. My father was always fascinated with figures and enjoyed balancing books'.

According to Philip Warland's granddaughter Grace Castle, writing in June 1990, 'The underwear factory came to an end not by fire, but because they were making ladies garments of cotton and other materials. Then, nylon and other synthetics came on the scene and they couldn't compete. It would have meant a complete new set of machinery. My mother (May Warland) worked in the office of the factory interviewing commercial travellers, etc.' Her cousin Albert was probably one of those travellers.

Grace Castle's comments about the reasons why the business closed are supported by those of a former employee, Nellie Browning. In an interview in August 1986, she noted that there was a downturn in the business 'because of the change in fashion from cotton to rayon undergarments'. She also said she thought that the business was taken over by 'States Manufacturing Co, who were then taken over by 'Matears' from 1924.

1922 - Kate Warland marries Ernest Ratcliff

According to family history, Kate Warland (born 1870) worked in the Warland firm and lived with her parents until she was 51. Kate married Ernest Henry Montague Ratcliff (born 1863) in 1922 (Vic BDM Ref 12320) but they had no children. Ernest Ratcliff was recorded in the Malvern Standard on 2 December 1911 as a builder of Armadale. On 7 January 1913, The Geelong Advertiser noted that his car collided with a tram along Swanston Street in Melbourne. He appeared on a regular basis in the Melbourne newspapers, mostly in relation to his financial interests.

According to her niece, Gladys Warland, writing in 1986, Kate and Ernest Ratcliffe lived at 420 Dandenong Road, Caulfield. Her mother Miriam Warland also moved there but lived in a separate 'granny flat' unit.

Early 1920s - Kate Ratcliff purchases land in the City of Moorabbin

The 1923/24 Rate Book for the City of Moorabbin includes reference to 'Warland Road'. It is believed this is connected with the acquisition of 23 allotments by Kate Ratcliff, whose address was given as 38 Dandenong Road.

1924 - Miriam Warland (nee Stockwell) dies

The Argus of 14 October 1924 noted that Miriam Warland died at the residence of her son-in-law (Ernest Ratcliff) on 12 October 1924. She was buried at Brighton Cemetery on 13 October 1924.

Late 1920s - Grace Castle's early life in Sydney

Grace Castle attended St Hilda’s Grammar, Mosman Primary School and the Presbyterian Ladies’ College at Pymble, where she was a weekly boarder. On leaving school, she joined the workforce as a calculator operator and worked at several different jobs.

1928 - Death of Herbert Warland

Herbert Warland was the son of Philip Christopher Warland's nephew William Edward Warland. In an interview with Ian Warland in 1986, Nellie Browning (who worked in the Warland company in Flinders lane from 1914 - 1922ish) said that she visited Herbert Warland's house at 89 Rathmines Road, and remembered him as being 'tall and fair and friendly'. Herbert Warland was killed in a RAAF plane crash in Wangaratta in 1928. He was married only a few years earlier and had two young sons, Ian and Graham Warland. Nellie told Ian Warland in 1986 that she attended the funeral in Melbourne and said it was 'very impressive'.

1929 - Death of Alexandra Warland (nee Boyd)

Augustus Henry Warland's wife, Alexandra Georgina Warland (nee Boyd), died on 11 March 1929. It appears that Augustus Henry Warland ceased to be recorded at the 101 Hambleton Street address from around this point.

Gladys Warland (born 1914), writing in 1986, said that she remembered seeing 'Uncle Gus' on a number of occasions. She wrote 'I understand he rather went down in the world (I have no idea of his occupation). He retired to the hills, somewhere in the region of the Dandenong ranges I think, and the last time my father visited him there he returned quite upset saying that Gus was then living in rather squalid conditions'.

Philip Warland, 1931

1932 - Kate Ratcliff appears in the newspapers

Kate was recorded in the Daily Commercial News and Shipping List (Sydney) of 13 June 1932, along with her husband Ernest, as Directors of Wendon Pty Ltd, 'capitalists, financiers and investors'.

1935 - Death of William McLeod, husband of May Warland

William McLeod, of 5 David Street, Mosman (also recorded as Clifton Gardens), NSW, the 'beloved husband of May McLeod and father of Grace', died suddenly on 2 October 1935 (Death notice in The Sydney Morning Herald of 3 October 1935)

After the death of her husband, May and Grace McLeod set off on an overseas trip that took them from Sydney, via Perth, to Italy, Britain, Europe and America.

1936 - Death of Augustus Henry Warland

Augustus Henry Warland died on 6 October 1936, according to the death notice in The Argus and The Age on 10 October 1936. The latter states that he was the father of Leslie Leonard Warland.

1938 - Death of Ernest Ratcliff, husband of Kate Warland, various bequests

Ernest Ratcliff died on 21 February 1938 (Vic BDM Ref 1475) at his residence, Wenden Lofts, Dandenong Road, Caulfield (death notice in The Argus, 26 February 1938, which noted that he was the brother of Ada Lawson).

Ernest Ratcliff's obituary was carried in The Argus of 25 February 1938:

Mr. E. H. M. Ratcliff. Mr. Ernest Henry Montague Ratcliff, of Caulfield, who died on February 21, aged 75 years, was born in Essex, England, and came to Australia in 1891. He began work as a builder and contractor in High street, Armadale, and retired from business 15 years ago. He was a foundation member of the Commonwealth Golf Club, from which he resigned a few months ago, because of failing health. For 15 years he was hon. treasurer of the William Forster Try Boys' Society, and for many years a member of the Armadale Bowling Club. Mr. Ratcliff retired only last year from the directorates of the Glen Iris Brick and Tile Company and the Malay Queen Rubber Company.

The Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld) carried the following on 19 April 1938:

Charitable Bequests. The Equity Trustees Co and Mrs Kate Ratcliffe are applying in Melbourne for probate of the will of Ernest Henry Montague Ratcliff, who died on February 21. The estate is sworn at £77,984, and Mr. Ratcliff, after bequests to his wife and relatives, has bequeathed legacies of £100 each to the Royal Melbourne, Prince Henry's, the Alfred, the Children's, the Austin, and the Women's Hospitals, the Foundling Hospital, and Infants' Home, and the William Forster Try Society. Mr. Ratcllff directed that the balance of his estate should constitute the 'E. H. M. Ratcllff Trust', the income to be applied in perpetuity for Protestant charitable or benevolent institutions chosen by trustees.

The Age (Melbourne) ran a similar article on 30 September 1939, as follows:

E. H. M. RATCLIFF CHARITABLE TRUST. Mrs. Kate Ratcliff and The Equity Trustees. Executors and Agency Co. Ltd., as executrix and executor of the will of E. H. M. Ratcliff, deceased, are making a distribution as under from the above charitable trust:- William Forster Try Boys' Society, £200; Deaf and Dumb Society of Victoria, £50; Travellers Aid Society of Victoria, £50; Australian Nurses Christian Movement, £50; Victorian Benevolent Home and Hospital for Aged and Infirm, £25; Dr. Singleton's Dispensary and Welfare Centre, £25; Red Cross Society, £100.

Kate Ratcliff was recorded in various newspapers as donating money from the fund to charitable causes. The E.H.M Ratcliffe Trust is still active as at 2017 and is under the control of the Equities Trustees.

By 1939 - Philip George Warland admitted to the bar

Philip George Warland was admitted to the bar (before 1939) and opened his own solicitor's office in Melbourne. He left his legal practice at the outbreak of World War Two, and enlisted as a Private in the AIF (VX22633), sailing to North Africa, where he was drafted into the Ordnance Division.

After home leave in 1942 - 1943, he was sent to the Northern Territory, where he remained until 1945.

1942 - Grace Warland McLeod (1912 - 2005) marries Bill Castle

In the early 1940's Grace McLeod did volunteer work for the Australian Red Cross, in addition to her usual job. One of the jobs was at Victoria Barracks in Sydney, where she met William (Bill) Albert Castle, a warrant officer with the Australian Army who served as the Chief Clerk at the Japanese War Trials, in New Guinea. They married on 14 March 1942 in Waverley, NSW (NSW BDM Ref 8146/1942). The marriage notice in The Sydney Morning Herald of 21 March 1942 stated that Grace was 'the only daughter of the late William McLeod of Mosman, and Mrs M McLeod of North Bondi.

Grace and William Castle lived at Campbell Parade, North Bondi in a block of flats owned by her mother, May McLeod. They later moved to Haberfield and had two children. (Further details are available upon request). After the war, Bill worked at Morts Dock, Balmain, until his sudden death, at age fifty-three, on 5 March 1955.

Post 1945 - Philip George Warland marries Margaret Jean Muir

Margaret Jean Muir (11 November 1913 - 6 March 1993) (known as 'Jean' to everyone) was born in Narrandera NSW, the daughter of Robert Muir, a bank manager, and Minnie Muir, who had two other daughters, Barbara Muir and Helen Muir. As Robert moved with his work, the family also moved. Jean Warland completed her formal education at Methodist Ladies College in Burwood, NSW and completed an Arts course at the University of Sydney, graduated with Honours in Psychology. After university, Jean was employed in the advertising section of David Jones department store in Sydney. According to the family, Jean Muir was 'well known and well respected in advertising circles' and took up a job as the Manager of J Walter Thompson, advertising agents, in Melbourne.

Jean was introduced by friends to Philip George Warland and they were married on 1 November 1947. Philip and Jean Warland had one daughter:

After the war, Philip George Warland took up a position in the Victorian Crown Law Office. Philip George was a solicitor for the Victorian Government State Law Offices (Crown Law Office), from which he retired in 1971.

Jean Warland quit her advertising work and took on a range of community work. In the early 1950s, Jean became involved with the United National Association of Australia - Victoria Division and also UNICEF. She was involved in a range of activities including with the World Health Organisation, the International Labour Office, and the World Meteorological Organisation.

1955 - Death of Bill Castle

Bill Castle, the husband of Grace Castle (daughter of May), worked as a clerk at Morts Dock at Balmain. He died suddenly from pneumonia on 3 March 1955. The Sydney Morning Herald of 7 March 1955 noted that Bill was 'late of Haberfield' (Ashfield, Sydney)(NSW BDM Ref 724/1955). At the time of his death, May McLeod was on a trip overseas but, on advice from her family, it was decided that she should continue her trip. She returned to help care for her daughter and grandchildren.

With Grace forced back to work, the house was too large for the family of four – Grace, her mother and the two children – and the move was made to a much smaller home in Wallace Street, Ashfield. One of her interests at the time was involvement in the Clan McLeod Society. She attended many functions and made some good friends. Her social life, other than this, was vitually non-existent with two young children and a dependent mother.

1957 - Philip Warland dies

Philip Warland died in 1957, in Caulfield, Victoria.

1962 - May McLeod (nee Warland) dies

Grace Castle's mother, May McLeod, died at Ashfield, NSW in 1962 (NSW BDM Ref 21030/1962).

1965 - Kate Ratcliff (nee Warland) dies

Kate Ratcliff died in Melbourne in 1965 (Vic BDM Ref 25755).

1979 - Margaret Jean Warland awarded MBE

Margaret Jean Warland was awarded the Member of the British Empire (MBE) medal on 16 June 1979, for service to children through UNICEF. In 1983 she was awarded the UNICEF Peace Medal.

1984 - Death of Philip George Warland

Philip George Warland died on 21 August 1984.

Life of Gladys Warland

Philip George's sister, Gladys lived with her parents until 1963. She was educated at St Catherine's, Toorak, and the University Conservatorium of Music, from where she graduated with the Degree of Bachelor of Music in 1941. For about 20 years after that, Gladys was attached to the University Examination Office, on a part-time basis. Gladys also spent some time performing for charity, writing program notes, adjuticating suburban competitions, and arranging or copying music which was not otherwise available. Gladys left Melbourne in June 1964 for a year's holiday in Europe, the US and Canada, and decided to remain in the UK. She returned to Australia in the late 1980's but died in the UK in 1992.

1993 - Death of Margaret Jean Warland

Jean Warland died on 6 March 1993.

2005 - Grace Warland Castle dies

Grace Warland Castle died on 25 June 2005 in Lismore, northern NSW. Her death was recorded in the Sydney Morning Herald and the Northern Star (Lismore) on 29 June 2005. It was stated that she was 'formerly of Ashfield, Sydney, late of Goonellabah (Lismore), and she was 92.

2014 - Death of Margaret Warland

Margaret Waland, the daughter of Philip and Jean Warland, died in 2014. She never married and had no children.

Page created 1985, last updated 9 April 2020. Copyright Andrew Warland.