Henry Warland (1797 - 1881) - Silk Manufacturer

Henry Warland (bap 23 September 1797, Wimborne Minster - 25 June 1881) was the son of Robert Warland (1759 - 1821) and Sarah Stickland (? -1821). It is not known when Henry arrived in Macclesfield or why he left Dorset, but it was presumably to seek employment opportunities in that location - it was once the world's biggest producer of finished silk and in 1832 it had 71 silk mills. Based on the date of his wedding to Anne Roberts, he was almost certainly in Macclesfield by 1828.

Note that the unrelated Thomas Warland (born 1803 - died ? Australia?), from the Oxford line of the Warland family, also worked in the silk business at Spital and can also been seen in newspaper and other reports from the late 1820s and early 1830s.

1821 - Death of Robert Warland (born 1759)

Henry Warland's father, Robert Warland, died in 1821. This event may have played a part in Henry's decision to move to Macclesfield.

1822 - Marriage of Ann Johnson to Richard Roberts, death of Richard

The birthplace of Ann Johnson (1800 - December 1877) is not known but it may have been Macclesfield. She is believed to have married Richard Roberts at London on 5 February 1822. It is not known if they had any children. Richard died sometime after they were married, however it is not possible to identify when or where he died - there are many records of a Richard Roberts dying from 1822 to 1829.

1826 - Henry Warland, bankrupt

The 'Bankrupt Directory: Being a Complete Register of all the Bankrupts' published in 1843 by George Elwick, records that Henry Warland, 'a silk warehouseman of Lad Lane (next to) Wood Street' (now part of Gresham Street, Cheapside, London), was declared bankrupt on 25 February 1826. It is not known if this is the same Henry, but his connection with the silk industry suggests this may be possible. Is it possible that Henry met his future bride, Ann Roberts, in London?

1829 - Henry Warland marries Anne Roberts

Henry married the widow (as noted in the records) Anne Roberts (nee Johnstone) at Prestbury, Cheshire, on 4 February 1829. Henry and Ann Warland had the following children, all born in Macclesfield, Cheshire.

1833 - Reports into factories January to August 1833

Henry Warland's silk manufacturing business almost certainly employed children as young as 6, common with most of the silk businesses at the time. Children were employed in various capacities including silk throwing, described below in 1841:

Silk throwing was originally a hand process relying on a turning a wheel (the gate) that twisted four threads while a helper who would be a child, ran the length of a shade, hooked the threads on stationary pins (the cross) and ran back to start the process again. ... Supposing the master to make twelve rolls a day, the boy necessarily runs fourteen miles, and this is barefooted.

A drawing depicting how children were employed in 'silk throwing'

A report was commissioned in 1833 by 'the Central Board of His Majesty's Commissioners for inquiring into the Employment of Children in Factories' and 'the propriety and means of curtailing the hours of their labour'. A question asked by the Commissioners collecting evidence was whether Lord Ashley's proposed Bill would have any effect on the silk establishments. Ashley's bill effectively was a repeat of Sadler's Bill of 1832 which provided for a ban on nightwork up to 21; no child under nine was to be employed; and the working day for under-eighteens was to be no more than ten hours (eight on Saturday).

The report included a summary under the title 'Answers from Macclesfield dated 8 June 1833 in which it stated (at page 23) that 'the silk trade has been for the last eight or nine years the subject of continual change, and each change has been, we conceive, prejudicial to those concerned'. It concluded that 'the hours and nature of working in silk mills have not been hurtful to the health of the people employed in them nor to their morals ... and no necessity exists for any legislative interference on this subject'. In other words, the silk manufacturers of Macclesfield felt that a 12 hour working day for children was working well and did not need to be changed.

On the very next page is a statement from a number of silk manufacturers, including Henry Warland, in response to the question 'What effect would a restriction on the moving-power have on the silk establishments'. The reply states that 'In many establishments it is the practice to run a part of the machinery for different periods of time, after the workpeople leave their works, without any hands being left to attend to it. This is considered to be a great advantage, of which they would, of course, be entirely deprived by the enactment of such a clause. We believe such an employment of machinery is not practicable in the other great manufactories'. Below this statement is one that states the effect would be 'very prejudicial', noting the distinction between manual labour-intensive cotton and machinery-based silk establishments.

On page 24, the report notes that if children under nine years of age are employed, 'it will throw out of employment a great number of such children in this town and neighbourhood, and (as their work is preparatory), by consequence a considerable proportion of adults. The immediate effect of such a restriction would be the stopping of a proportion of the machinery and a considerable increase of the poor rates.'

The document further notes that 'the silk trade of this country has for some time past been in a very distressed state, owing to the silk-throwsters and manufacturers having to compete with those of France and other countries'.

1839 - Henry Warland and R Edmonds part company

Possibly connected with the general downturn in the silk industry, a notice appeared in The London Gazette in 1839 as follows:

Notice is hereby given, that the Partnership lately subsisting between us the undersigned, Richard Edmonds, Henry Warland, and Thomas Thornborrow Fawcett, lately carrying on business as silk manufacturers and merchants, at Macclesfield, in the county of Cheshire, at Leigh, in the county of Lancaster, and of Trump Street, Cheapside, in the city of London, and carried on under the style or form of R Edmonds and CO, was this day dissolved by mutual consent. Witness our hands this 27th day of Juy 1839. Signed: R. Edmonds, H Warland, T T Fawcett

1841 Census

Henry and Anne Warland were recorded in the 1841 census living at Waters Green, Macclesfield with their children listed above. Henry Warland was recorded as a partner in the company Warland, Condon and Co, Silk Manufacturers in the same location.

1844 - Cousin Eliza Harris (nee Warland) migrates to Australia

Cousin Eliza Harris (nee Warland) (1810 - ) and her husband Thomas Harris migrated to Sydney in 1844.

1848 - 1851 (Census)

In 1848, Slaters Cheshire Directory recorded the company of 'Warland, Condon and Co, Waters Green, Macclesfield, Silk Manufacturers'. Sometime soon after, the family appears to have moved to London.

In the 1851 census, Henry Warland, a silk merchant, along with his wife Ann, their daughter Annie and their sons Edward Warland and Philip Warland are recorded in Surrey, London. Their son Henry is recorded as a shop assistant in Middlesex, London. The location of William Warland is not known.

1853 - Edward Warland migrates to Australia

The 18 year old Edward Warland left for Australia in 1853. For details of his life there, see this page.

1855 - Cousin Henry Warland migrates to Melbourne, Australia

Henry Warland migrated to Melbourne, Victoria in 1855. Philip Christopher Warland and family would connect with and have ongoing contact with Henry and his family in Melbourne.

1861 - Siblings Henry, Anne and William Warland in Dorset

Three of the children 'returned' to their father's home county of Dorset by 1861. On 26 March 1861, Henry Warland junior, a linen draper and tailor, married Elizabeth Dodson (1835 - 22 March 1871), the daughter of Henry Dodson (a builder) at Melcombe Regis Parish Church, Weymouth, Dorset. In the 1861 census, Henry and Elizabeth Warland were recorded living at 15 Cornhill Street, Dorchester, Dorset with Henry's sister Annie Warland, as well as as a housekeeper and five other people working in Henry's employment. Henry's brother William Warland, a draper, is also recorded in the same county.

Neither Henry Warland senior (born 1797) nor his wife Ann appear in the 1861 census for England. Perhaps they were not in the country at the time.

1864 - Henry Warland (born 1830) in Bourton-on-the-Water

Henry and Elizabeth Warland moved to Bourton-on-the-Water by 1864 and had the following children. It appears that they then moved to Bexley in Kent where their last surviving child Albert was born

1867 - Philip Christopher Warland migrates to Australia

In 1867, Henry Warland senior's younger brother, the 27 year old Philip Christopher Warland, left England for Australia, settling in Victoria. Philip's older brother Edward Warland was already settled in New South Wales. It is not known if Philip was in contact with Edward but it seems likely. Philip was definitely in contact with his first cousin Henry Warland who had arrived in Melbourne in 1855.

1871 - Elizabeth Warland dies - 1871 census

Elizabeth Warland (nee Dodson), the wife of Henry Warland (1830 - 1876) died at The Village, Bexley, on 22 April 1871 of congestive fever 'with abortion'.

The 1871 census shows Henry Warland's family, less Elizabeth Warland, in High Street, Bexley Village, Kent. The boys are shown as: Henry T Warland (aged 6), William Warland (aged 5), and Albert Warland (aged 1), their birthplace showing as Gloucestshire.

Henry's mother Anne Warland (now aged 71) is also recorded in the same location. One Alice Warland, aged 59 from Oxfordshire, is also recorded, but she is not believed to be connected with Henry's family.

Henry Warland senior (born 1797) appears to be in Surrey possibly living with or visiting his son William Warland who is recorded in Surrey.

1876 - Henry Warland (born 1830) dies

At some point Henry Warland (born 1830) appears to have taken his boys (or perhaps just the two older ones) to live in London. He died at the age of 46 at 49 Jewin St, London on 16 March 1876, of acute pneumonia (for 10 days). This left the three boys (Henry, aged 12; William, aged 11; Albert, aged 7, without parents.

Henry's will was proved by Henry's brother William Warland of No 51 Westbourne Park Crescent, Paddington, in the County of Middlesex, Commercial Traveller and William Day of No 2 Harbour Road, Cold Harbour Lane in the County of Surrey, Hosier. His will read as follows:

This is the last Will and Testament of me Henry Warland of No 49 Jewin Street in the City of London, Commercial Traveller. Subject to the payment of my just debts funeral and tesamentary expences I give and bequeath all and singluar my personal estate and effects whatsover and wheresoever unto my brother William Warland of Artesian Road, Westbourne Park in the County of Middlesex, Commercial Traveller, and William Day of No 2, Harbour Road Cold Harbour Lane, Camberwell in the County of Surrey Hosier their executors administrators and assigns upon trust to divide the same unto and equally between my sons Henry Thomas Warland, William Edward Warland and Albert John Warland on their attaining the age of twenty one years. And I hereby empower my said executors at any time during their minority to apply the whole or so much of the share or shares to which he or they may be entitled as may be deemed necessary in and for the maintenance and education of my said children and invest the remainder upon Government or other good security. But if either of my said children shall die before he or they shall have received the whole of his share, then I direct such share or so much thereof as shall remain unapplied for the purposes aforesaid to be equally divided between the survivors. I hereby appoint my said Brother William Warland and William Day the Executors of this my will and hereby revoking all former wills by me at any time heretofore made (if any). I declare this to be my last will and testament. In witness whereof the said Henry Warland, the testator* (in margin: have hereunto set my hand this fourteenth day of [June?] one thousand eight hundred and seventy five - Henry Warland - signed by the said Henry Warland the testator] as and for his last will and testament in the presence of us at his rquest in his presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses. John Skerratt, 5 Fredericks Place, Denmark Road, Camberwell, Solicitors Clerk. Joseph Day, Warehouseman, 1 Harrior [Warrior?] Road, Camberwell.

1877 - Two of the boys move in with their grandfather, Ann Warland (nee Roberts) dies

After Henry Warland (born 1830) died in 1876, his sons Henry Thomas Warland and William Edward Warland moved to Brighton to live with their grandfather and aunt Anne Warland at 19 Buckingham Street, Brighton. It is understood (from descendents) that Albert John Warland, aged only 7, went to live with the Powell family in Bourne Lane, Bexley.

Ann Warland (born 1800), the wife of Henry Warland (born 1797), died at Brighton, Sussex, in December 1877.

1881 Census

In the 1881 census, members of the family are recorded as living at 19 Buckingham St, Brighton, as follows:

In the same census, William Warland (Henry's twin born in 1830) was (still) recorded as a linen draper in Middlesex.

1881 - Death of Henry Warland (born 1797)

Henry Warland (born 1797) died soon after the 1881 census, leaving his daughter Anne to care for the two boys.

From 1884 - the life of the three boys

Henry ('Harry') Thomas Warland may have worked as a clerk to the builder Henry Dodson, his mother's father. He remained in Brighton for the rest of his life.

William Edward Warland migrated to Australia in 1887.

Albert John Warland migrated to Australia in 1884 initially in the care of his uncle Philip Christopher Warland.

The brothers were reunited in 1923 for the last time when Albert Warland returned to the UK with his daughters (see below).

Click the links above for the stories of each brother.

About 1887 - William Warland (born 1830) dies

It is not yet known exactly when William Warland, Henry's twin brother born in 1830, died but it is believed to be in 1887 in Edmonton District, Middlesex as he is not referred to in his sister Anne's will below. As far as is known, he had no family.

1891 - Death of Anne Warland (1831 - 1891)

Henry Warland's sister, Anne (or Annie) Warland (1831 - 1891) never married and died in the third quarter (July to September) of 1891. At her death, she was living at the family home at 19 Buckingham Street, Brighton. The text of her will is repeated below:

This is the last Will and Testament of me, Anne Warland of Number 19 Buckingham Street, Brighton in the County of Sussex, Spinster. I give to my nephew Henry Thomas Warland my silver tea service, drawing room furniture, marble block and piano. Also my watch and books. I give my dressing base and its contents to my niece Kate Warland. I give, devise and bequeath all my real estate and all my personal estate whatsoever and wheresoever unto my nephew Henry Thomas Warland, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns now residing with me then trust as soon as conveniently may be after my decease to sell my real estate and to convert my personal etate as shall not consist of money at the time of my decease and to stand possessed of the monies to arise from such sale and conversion and also of my ready money herinafter called my trust funds in trust to pay the following legacies to my nephews the said Henry Thomas Warland, William Edward Warland and Albert John Warland each one hundred pounds. To Elizabeth the widow of my brother fifty pounds. To my cousin Sarah Anne Warland ten pounds. I also give to her my wearing apparel. And as to the residue of my said trust funds upon trust to divide the same unto and equally between my two Brothers Edward Warland of Tinga, New South Wales and Philip Christopher Warland share and share alike absolutely and I appoint my said nephew Henry Thomas Warland, Executor of this my will and lastly I revoke all other wills. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and eight eight.

Signed by the said Anne Warland (the testatrix) as and for her last will and testament in the presence of us present at the same time who at her request in her presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses, the erasure commencingwith the Pronoun 'I' and ending with the word trouble having been previously made.

Wilson A Stuckey, Sol Brighton

Frederick Chapman, Clerk to Messrs Stuckey son + Pope Solicitors Brighton

Proved at Lewes the 22nd day of September 1891 by the oath of Henry Thomas Warland the nephew the sole Executor to whom administration was granted. The Testatrix Anne Warland was late of No 19 Buckingham Street, Brighton in the County of Sussex, spinster and died on the twentieth day of August 1891 at No 19 Buckingham Street aforesaid.

Gross amount £1,139.14.8

Net . £1,107.8.2

Stuckey Son + Pope, Solicitors, Brighton

I certify this to be a true copy

Paged created 8 April 2013, updated 16 August 2018. Copyright Andrew Warland 2010 - 2018